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Citation Help--APA, MLA , SBL, AMS, ACS, and CSE Styles: APA Style Resources

This guide explains what citations are and why they're necessary, providing tools and examples for citing sources properly in APA, MLA, SBL, and AMS styles. It also provides access to resources explaining plagiarism and how to avoid it.

Other Online APA Style Guide Help

Sample APA-Style Papers

Formatting an Annotated Bibliography in APA Style

Official APA Style Help Resources from the American Psychological Association

A Word About Digital Object Identifier (DOI) Numbers...

According to the APA

A digital object identifier (DOI) is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. The publisher assigns a DOI when an article is published and made available electronically.

. . . . The DOI is typically located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.

  • The main reason for DOI numbers is to provide a stable link to electronic articles accessible on the web.  The system is set up so that the DOI numbers will not change, and the articles and other digital documents that use them should remain accessible by using the DOI number to access them.
  • However, some articles do not have DOI numbers, especially those that were published before the 2000s, and the APA Manual gives you alternative options for articles in that situation.  They provide some clarification about when to use a DOI number and when to use a URL in a citation to an electronic journal article from a database in a flowchart from the APA blog.  Ultimately, though, your instructor is the final arbiter on how you cite journal articles without DOI numbers.

Example of a typical DOI number:  10.1007/s10699-014-9361-3

Online Citation Builders

The following online sites help you build a citation in a variety of formats, including APA.

(Note: Accuracy of citations created using the following online citation building tools may vary; always compare these tool-created citations with the print manuals for both the MLA and APA styles.)

APA Style Practice Exercises

Use the following practice exercises from Canada's Royal Roads University to test your skills in using APA style in a variety of areas:  general skills (see the introductory video link on the first page under the "General APA exercise" link), formatting, in-text citations, and reference list:

Online Business Sources in APA Style

Quotations, Paraphrases, and Summaries

Help in Formatting APA Style Running Heads and Page Numbers

The following documents will guide you in formatting papers in APA style (in both Word 2013 and 2016, as well as in Google Docs) with a different header on page 1 than throughout the rest of your paper, and with proper page number formatting.  The first document bulleted below shows how to do so with screen shots taken from Word 2016, the second with screenshots taken from Word 2013, and the third using screenshots taken from Google Docs.  

The fourth document walks you through how to divide your Word doc into sections, allowing you to use different headers and different page number formats within each (such as Roman numerals in one section and Arabic numerals in another, all contained in one Word file).

(Following these guidelines will save you a lot of headaches, allowing you to save your correctly-formatted paper in one single file.)